Clinical aftereffect aloft infection with SARS-CoV-2 ranges from bashful infection to baleful COVID-19. We accept begin an accessory in attenuate variants predicted to be loss-of-function (LOF) at the 13 animal loci accepted to administer TLR3- and IRF7-dependent blazon I interferon (IFN) amnesty to affliction virus, in 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia, about to 534 capacity with asymptomatic or amiable infection. By testing these and added attenuate variants at these 13 loci, we experimentally ascertain LOF variants in 23 patients (3.5%), age-old 17 to 77 years, basal autosomal backward or ascendant deficiencies. We appearance that animal fibroblasts with mutations affecting this alleyway are accessible to SARS-CoV-2. Congenital errors of TLR3- and IRF7-dependent blazon I IFN amnesty can underlie life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with no above-mentioned astringent infection.
SARS-CoV-2 has already claimed at atomic 800,000 lives, has been detected in at atomic 20 actor people, and has apparently adulterated at atomic addition 200 million. The analytic manifestations ambit from bashful infection to baleful disease, with an infection-fatality amount of 0.1% to 0.9%. Three epidemiological factors access the accident of severity: accretion age, decade-by-decade, afterwards the age of 50 years, actuality macho and assorted basal medical altitude (1). However, alike demography these factors into account, there is immense interindividual analytic airheadedness in anniversary demographic class considered. Following on from our animal abiogenetic studies of added astringent communicable diseases (2, 3), we accustomed the COVID Animal Abiogenetic Effort (https://www.covidhge.com) to appraisal the accepted antecedent that life-threatening COVID-19 may be caused, in some patients, by monogenic congenital errors of amnesty to SARS-CoV-2, with abridged or complete penetrance (4). We enrolled 659 patients (74.5% men and 25.5% women, 13.9% of whom died) of assorted ancestries, age-old amid one ages and 99 years (Fig. 1A). These patients were ailing for life-threatening pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 (critical COVID-19). We sequenced their accomplished genome (N = 364) or exome (N = 295), and arch basic appraisal (PCA) on these abstracts accepted their ancestries (Fig. 1B).
(A) Age and sex administering of patients with life-threatening COVID-19. (B) PCA of accommodating and ascendancy cohorts (patients with mild/asymptomatic ache and individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project).
We aboriginal activated the specific antecedent that congenital errors of TLR3- and IRF7-dependent blazon I interferon (IFN) immunity, which underlie life-threatening affliction pneumonia, may additionally underlie life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia (5) (Fig. 2). We advised three loci ahead apparent to be mutated in patients with analytical affliction pneumonia: TLR3 (6), IRF7 (7), and IRF9 (8). We additionally advised 10 loci mutated in patients with added viral illnesses but anon affiliated to the three amount genes appointment affliction susceptibility: TICAM1/TRIF (9), UNC93B1 (10), TRAF3 (11), TBK1 (12), IRF3 (13) and NEMO/IKBKG (14) in the TLR3-dependent blazon I IFN consecration pathway, and IFNAR1 (15), IFNAR2 (16), STAT1 (17), and STAT2 (18) in the IRF7- and IRF9-dependent blazon I IFN addition pathway. We calm both mono- and biallelic non-synonymous variants with a accessory allele abundance (MAF) < 0.001 at all 13 loci. Twelve of the thirteen applicant loci are autosomal, while NEMO is X-linked. For the closing gene, we advised abandoned a backward archetypal (19). Autosomal ascendant (AD) bequest has not been accurate for six of the 12 autosomal loci (UNC93B1, IRF7, IFNAR1, IFNAR2, STAT2, IRF9), but we about advised heterozygous variants, because none of the patients enrolled had been ailing for analytical viral infections afore COVID-19, adopting the achievability that any basal abiogenetic defects they ability accept affectation a lower penetrance for affliction and added viral illnesses than for COVID-19, which is triggered by a added baneful virus.
Molecules in red are encoded by amount genes, deleterious variants of which underlie analytical affliction pneumonia, with abridged penetrance, while deleterious variants of genes encoding biochemically accompanying molecules in dejected underlie added viral illnesses. ISGs: interferon-stimulated genes.
We begin four altered patients with biallelic variants of IRF7 or IFNAR1 (Table 1 and table S1). We additionally begin 113 patients accustomed 113 monoallelic variants at 12 loci: TLR3 (N = 7 patients/7 variants), UNC93B1 (N = 10/9), TICAM1 (N = 17/15), TRAF3 (N = 6/6), TBK1 (N = 12/11), IRF3 (N = 5/5), IRF7 (N = 20/13), IFNAR1 (N = 14/13), IFNAR2 (N = 17/15), STAT1 (N = 4/4), STAT2 (N = 11/11), and IRF9 (N = 4/4). We detected no archetype cardinal aberration (CNV) for these 13 genes. Remarkably, one of these variants has been appear in patients with life-threatening affliction pneumonia (TLR3 p.Pro554Ser) (6, 20), and addition was apparent to be both deleterious and dominant-negative (IFNAR1 p.Pro335del) (21). Nine of the 118 biallelic or monoallelic variants were predicted to be loss-of-function (pLOF), admitting the actual 109 were missense or in-frame indels (table S1). In a sample of 534 controls with asymptomatic or balmy SARS-CoV-2 infection, we begin abandoned one heterozygous pLOF aberration with a MAF < 0.001 at the 13 loci (IRF7 p.Leu99fs). A PCA-adjusted accountability appraisal on the 12 autosomal loci appear cogent accessory in pLOF variants in patients about to controls (p = 0.01, OR = 8.28 [1.04–65.64, 95%CI]) beneath an AD approach of inheritance. The aforementioned appraisal performed on alike variants with a MAF < 0.001 was not cogent (p = 0.19), advertence that our ethnicity-adjusted accountability appraisal was able-bodied calibrated.
Disease-causing variants articular in patients with life-threatening COVID-19.
We activated 113 of these 118 variants experimentally in ad hoc overexpression systems. We begin that 24 variants of eight genes were deleterious (including all the pLOF variants), as they were loss-of-expression (LOE), LOF, or acutely hypomorphic (HYPO): TLR3 (N = 4 variants), UNC93B1 (N = 1), TICAM1 (N = 3), TBK1 (N = 2), IRF3 (N = 2), IRF7 (N = 8), IFNAR1 (N = 3), and IFNAR2 (N = 1) (table S1, Fig. 3, and figs. S1 to S8). Consistently, heterozygous LOF variants of IRF3 and IRF7 were appear in distinct patients with life-threatening affliction pneumonia (22, 23). The actual 89 variants activated were biochemically neutral. Twenty-three patients agitated these 24 deleterious variants, constant in four autosomal backward (AR) deficiencies (homozygosity or admixture heterozygosity for IRF7, homozygosity for IFNAR1) and 19 AD deficiencies. These 23 patients did not backpack applicant variants at the added 417 loci accepted to underlie congenital errors of amnesty (table S2) (24–26). These allegation advance that at atomic 23 (3.5%) altered patients of the 659 patients activated suffered from a absence at one of eight loci amid the 13 tested: four patients with a accepted AR ataxia (IRF7, IFNAR1) (7, 15), eleven with a accepted AD ataxia (TLR3, TICAM1, TBK1, IRF3) (6, 9, 12, 13, 20), and eight with a ahead alien AD abiogenetic ataxia (UNC93B1, IRF7, IFNAR1, IFNAR2).
(A) TLR3-deficient P2.1 fibrosarcoma beef were durably transfected with plasmids cogent wild-type or aberrant forms of TLR3 and IFNL1 mRNA levels were bent by RT-qPCR. IFNL1 mRNA levels are bidding about to housekeeping gene GUS, and again normalized. IFNL1 was ephemeral in unstimulated cells. The differences amid variants and wild-type were activated in one-way ANOVA (*p<0.05). (B) TICAM1-deficient SV40-Fib was briefly transfected with wild-type or aberrant forms of TICAM1, calm with an IFN-β-luciferase anchorman and a constitutively bidding reporter. Normalized luciferase consecration was abstinent 24 hours afterwards transfection. The differences amid variants and wild-type were activated in one-way ANOVA (*p<0.05). (C) HEK293T beef were briefly transfected with wildtype and aberrant forms of TBK1, calm with an IFN-β-luciferase anchorman and a constitutively bidding reporter. Normalized luciferase action was abstinent 24 hours afterwards transfection. The differences amid variants and wild-type were activated in one-way ANOVA (*p<0.05). (D) IRF3-deficient HEK293T beef were briefly transfected with wild-type and aberrant forms of IRF3, calm with an IFN-β-luciferase anchorman and a constitutively bidding reporter. Beef were either larboard basic or adulterated with Sendai virus for 24 hours, afore the normalized altitude of luciferase activity. The differences amid variants and wild-type were evaluated in two-way ANOVA (*p<0.05). (E) HEK293T beef were briefly transfected with wild-type and aberrant forms of IRF7, calm with an IFN-β-luciferase anchorman and a constitutively bidding reporter. Beef were either larboard basic or adulterated with Sendai virus for 24 hours afore the normalized altitude of luciferase activity. The differences amid variants and wild-type were activated in two-way ANOVA (*p<0.05). (F) and (G) IFNAR1- or IFNAR2-deficient SV40-Fib beef were briefly transfected with wild-type or aberrant forms of IFNAR1 for 36 hours and were either larboard basic or angry with IFN-α2 or -γ. FACS staining with anti-p-STAT1 antibiotic and the z-score of average fluorescence acuteness (MFI) were adjourned (*variants with MFI beneath than 50% of wild-type). Variants in red were articular in COVID-19 patients. Variants in dejected are accepted deleterious variants and served as abrogating controls. EV: abandoned vector; LT: Lipofectamine; WT: wild-type. Three abstruse repeats were performed for A-E. Beggarly and accepted aberration (SD) were apparent in cavalcade and accumbent confined back appropriate.
We activated beef from patients with called genotypes. We showed that PHA-driven T-cell blasts (PHA-T cells) from patients with AR or AD IRF7 absence had low levels of IRF7 announcement (Fig. 4A). We again abandoned circulating plasmacytoid blooming beef (pDCs) from a accommodating with AR IRF7 absence (fig. S9A) (7). These beef were present in accustomed accommodation (fig. S9B), but they did not aftermath any apparent blazon I or III IFNs in acknowledgment to SARS-CoV-2, as analyzed by cytometric bean arrangement (CBA), ELISA, and RNA-seq (Fig. 4, B and C). We additionally showed that PHA-T beef from a accommodating with AR IFNAR1 absence had broken IFNAR1 announcement and responses to IFN-α2 or -β, and that the patient’s SV40-transformed fibroblast (SV40-Fib cells) did not acknowledge to IFN-α2 and -β (Fig. 5). We again adulterated TLR3−/−, TLR3 /−, IRF7−/−, IRF7−/− rescued with wild-type IRF7, IFNAR1−/−, and IFNAR1−/− rescued with wild-type IFNAR1 SV40-Fib beef ahead transduced with ACE2 and TMPRSS2. SARS-CoV-2 infection levels were college in aberrant beef than in beef from advantageous donors, and transduction of wild-type IRF7 or IFNAR1 rescued their defects (Fig. 6). Collectively, these allegation showed that AR IRF7 absence broken the assembly of blazon I IFN by pDCs angry with SARS-CoV-2, admitting AR and AD deficiencies of TLR3, or AR absence of IFNAR1 broken fibroblast-intrinsic blazon I IFN amnesty to SARS-CoV2. They additionally advance that heterozygosity for LOF variations at the added bristles mutated loci additionally underlie life-threatening COVID-19.
(A) Levels of IRF7 protein in PHA-T beef from two patients with AR IRF7 absence (P1, P3) and one accommodating with AD IRF7 absence (P2), and four advantageous donors (C1-4). Beef were either larboard basic or were angry with IFN-α2 for 24 hours and protein levels were abstinent by Western blotting. MX1 was acclimated as a absolute ascendancy for IFN-α2 treatment. (B) pDCs abandoned from an AR IRF7-deficient accommodating (P1) and a advantageous donor (C1) were either larboard untreated, or were adulterated with affliction A virus (IAV) or SARS-CoV-2, and RNAseq was performed. Genes with announcement >2.5 bend college or lower in C1 afterwards infection are plotted, by bend change in expression. Red dots: blazon I IFN genes; dejected dots: blazon III IFN genes. (C) pDCs abandoned from a advantageous donor (C) and IRF7-deficient accommodating (P1) were either larboard basic (Medium) or adulterated with IAV or SARS-CoV-2, and the assembly of IFN-α2 and IFN-λ1 was abstinent by CBA and ELISA, respectively, on the supernatant. ND: not detected.
(A) FACS staining of IFNAR1 on the apparent of PHA-T beef from a accommodating with AR IFNAR1 absence (P5) and advantageous donors (C1, C2). (B) PHA-T beef and SV40-Fib from a accommodating with AR IFNAR1 absence (P5) and a advantageous donor (C3) were angry with IFN-α2 or -β, and p-STAT1 levels were bent by FACS. IL-27 dispatch served as a absolute ascendancy on PHA-T cells, admitting IFN-γ dispatch served as a absolute ascendancy on SV40-Fib cells.
SV40-Fib of TLR3−/−, TLR3 /−, IRF7−/−, IRF7−/− rescued with wild-type IRF7, IFNAR1−/−, and IFNAR1−/− rescued with wild-type IFNAR1 were transduced with ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and again either larboard basic or advised with IFN-β for 4 hours. Beef were again adulterated with SARS-CoV-2 (MOI = 0.5). ACE2 and viral S-protein levels were abstinent by high-content microscopy, afterwards staining, with gating on ACE2 cells. IRF7 amiss SV40-Fib beef were ahead transduced with either wild-type IRF7 (WT IRF7) or abrogating ascendancy (Luc). IFNAR1 amiss beef were ahead transduced with either wild-type IFNAR1 (WT IFNAR1) or abandoned agent (EV).
We activated whether these genotypes broken the assembly of blazon I IFN in vivo, during the advance of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We abstinent the levels of the 13 types of IFN-α in the claret of patients during the astute appearance of COVID-19. We begin that 10 of the 23 patients with mutations for whom samples were accessible (one with AR IRF7 deficiency, four with AD IRF7 deficiency, one with AD TLR3 deficiency, two with AD TBK1 deficiency, one with AR IFNAR1 deficiency, and one with AD TICAM1 deficiency) had serum IFN-α levels beneath 1 pg/mL (Fig. 7). By contrast, ahead appear cohorts of patients ailing with unexplained, astringent COVID-19 had assorted serum IFN-α levels, decidedly college than our 10 patients (one-way ANOVA, p = 1.4×10−7; Fig. 7) (27, 28). Importantly, addition 29 patients from our accomplice announcement auto-Abs adjoin blazon I IFNs, appear in an accompanying paper, had ephemeral levels of serum IFN-α (29). Moreover, none of the 23 patients with LOF mutations of the eight genes had apparent auto-Abs adjoin blazon I IFNs (29), acerb suggesting that the two mechanisms of ache are similar, but independent. Strikingly, excluding patients with auto-Abs adjoin blazon I IFN from the accountability appraisal of pLOF variants at the 12 autosomal loci adequate the affiliation arresting (p = 0.007, OR = 8.97 [1.13–71.09, 95%CI]).
Plasma levels of 13 IFN-α were abstinent by Simoa. AD: autosomal dominant; AR: autosomal recessive; Auto-Ab( ) afterwards LOF variants: COVID-19 patients with acrid anti-IFN-α auto-Abs in our accompanying address (29). P amount adumbrated were evaluated in one-way ANOVA.
Collectively, our abstracts advance that at atomic 23 of the 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia advised accept accepted (six disorders) or new (four disorders) abiogenetic defects at eight loci complex in the TLR3- and IRF7-dependent consecration and addition of blazon I IFNs. This appraisal reveals the capital role of both the dsRNA sensor TLR3 and blazon I IFN cell-intrinsic amnesty in the ascendancy of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lungs, constant with their ahead accurate roles in pulmonary amnesty to affliction virus (5–8). Strikingly, these genotypes were bashful until infection with SARS-CoV-2. The best absorbing examples are the AR deficiencies of IRF7 and IFNAR1. AR IRF7 absence was diagnosed in two individuals age-old 49 and 50 years, and AR IFNAR1 absence was diagnosed in two individuals age-old 26 and 38 years, with no above-mentioned history of life-threatening infections (Table 1). One accommodating with IRF7 absence activated was seropositive for several accepted viruses, including assorted affliction A and B bacilli (figs. S10 and S11). These abiogenetic defects accordingly affectation abridged penetrance for affliction respiratory distress, and abandoned embodied clinically aloft infection with the added baneful SARS-CoV-2.
The AR anatomy of IFNAR1 absence highlights the accent of blazon I IFN production, about to blazon III IFN, the assembly of which is additionally broken by defects of TLR3, IRF7, and IRF9 (5). This cessation is additionally accurate by our accompanying address of acrid auto-antibodies adjoin blazon I, but not blazon III IFNs, in added patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia (29). Congenital errors of TLR3- and IRF7-dependent blazon I IFN amnesty at eight loci were begin in as abounding as 23 patients (3.5%) of assorted ages (17 to 77 years) and ancestries (various nationalities, from Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East), and in patients of both sexes (Table 1). Our allegation advance that there may be mutations in added blazon I IFN-related genes in added patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. They additionally advance that the administering of blazon I IFN may be of ameliorative account in called patients, at atomic aboriginal in the advance of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
We included in this abstraction 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia authentic as patients with pneumonia who developed analytical disease, whether pulmonary with automated blast (CPAP, BIPAP, intubation, hi-flow oxygen), catchbasin shock, or with any added agency accident acute acceptance to the ICU. Patients who developed Kawasaki-like affection were excluded. The age of the patients ranged from 0.1-99 years, with a beggarly age of 51.8 years (SD 15.9 years), and 25.5% of the patients were female. As controls, we enrolled 534 individuals adulterated with SARS-CoV-2 (based on a absolute PCR and/or serological appraisal and/or the attendance of archetypal affection such as anosmia/ageusia afterwards acknowledgment to a accepted COVID-19 case) who remained asymptomatic or developed mild, self-healing, ambulant disease.
Genomic DNA was extracted from accomplished blood. For the 1193 patients and controls included, the accomplished exome (N = 687) or accomplished genome (N = 506) was sequenced. We acclimated the Genome Appraisal Software Kit (GATK) (version 3.4-46 or 4) best-practice action to appraisal our WES abstracts (30). We accumbent the reads acquired with the animal advertence genome (hg19), appliance the best exact matches algorithm in the Burrows–Wheeler Aligner (BWA) (31). PCR duplicates were removed with Picard accoutrement (picard.sourceforge.net). The GATK abject affection account recalibrator was activated to actual sequencing artifacts.
All the variants were manually curated appliance IGV and accepted to affect the capital anatomic protein isoform by blockage the protein arrangement afore admittance in added analyzes. The capital anatomic protein isoforms are: TLR3 (NM_003265), UNC93B1 (NM_030930.4), TICAM1 (NM_182919), TRAF3 (NM_145725.2), TBK1 (NM_013254.4), IRF3 (NM_001571), IRF7 (NM_001572.5), IFNAR1 (NM_000629.3), IFNAR2 (NM_001289125.3), STAT1 (NM_007315.4), STAT2 (NM_005419.4), IRF9 (NM_006084.5). The appraisal of IKBKG was customized to acquaint the bifold arena in IKBKG appliance a specific action ahead declared (32). We searched the NGS abstracts for deletions in the 13 genes of interest, appliance both the HMZDelFinder (33) and CANOES (34) algorithms.
We performed an accessory appraisal on our accomplice of 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia and 534 SARS-CoV2 adulterated controls, absorption on 12 autosomal IFN-related genes. We advised variants that were pLOF, with a MAF lower than 0.001 (gnomAD v2.1.1) afterwards experimentally demonstrating that all the pLOF variants apparent in the cases were absolutely LOF. We compared the admeasurement of individuals accustomed at atomic one pLOF alternative of the 12 autosomal genes in cases and controls by agency of logistic corruption with the likelihood arrangement test. We accounted for the indigenous adverse of the cohorts by including the aboriginal three arch apparatus of the PCA in the logistic corruption model. PC acclimation is a accepted and able action for accounting for altered ancestries of patients and controls in the abstraction of attenuate variants (35–38). We arrested that our adapted accountability appraisal was able-bodied calibrated, by additionally assuming an appraisal of accessory in attenuate (MAF < 0.001) alike variants of the 12 genes. PCA was performed with Plink v1.9 software on Whole-Exome and Whole-Genome Sequencing abstracts and 1000 Genomes (1kG) Activity appearance 3 accessible database as reference, appliance 27,480 exonic variants with a accessory allele abundance > 0.01 and a alarm amount > 0.99. The allowance arrangement was additionally estimated by logistic corruption and adapted for indigenous heterogeneity.
Cell curve or SV40-Fib beef with accepted defects were briefly or durably transfected with wild-type, aberrant variants, IFN-β- or ISRE-firefly luciferase reporter, and pRL-TK-Renilla luciferase reporter. Anchorman action was abstinent with the Dual-Luciferase Anchorman Appraisal System (Promega Corporation), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Firefly luciferase action was normalized adjoin Renilla luciferase action and bidding as a fold-change were calculated. TRAF3-deficient HEK293T beef were attentive provided by Dr. Maria Romanelli (39).
pDCs from an IRF7−/− accommodating and a advantageous donor akin for age and sex were able in the attendance of average alone, affliction virus (Charles River, A/PR/8/34, 2 μg/mL), or the SARS-CoV-2 primary ache 220_95 (GISAID accretion ID: EPI_ISL_469284) at a complication of infection (MOI) of 2. Afterwards 12 hours of culture, pDC afloat was calm for cytokine quantification. IFN-α2 levels were abstinent in BD cytometric bean arrays (CBAs), in accordance with the manufacturer’s protocol, with a 20 pg/mL apprehension limit. IFN-λ1 beard was abstinent in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent appraisal (ELISA) (R&D Systems, DuoSet DY7246), in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
To accomplish patients-derived fibroblasts acquiescent to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we delivered animal ACE2 and TMPRSS2 cDNA to beef by lentivirus transduction appliance a adapted SCRPSY agent (GenBank: KT368137.1). SARS-CoV-2, ache USA-WA1/2020, was acquired from BEI Resources. ACE2/TMPRSS2-transduced beef were either larboard basic or advised with 500 U/ml IFN-β (PBL Appraisal Science, cat. #11415-1) four hours above-mentioned to infection. Beef were adulterated with SARS-CoV-2 (MOI = 0.5) for one hour at 37°C. Afterwards 24 hours of infection, beef were anchored and taken out of the BSL3 for staining.
After fixation, beef were decrepit with SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 primary antibodies (0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively). Primary antibodies: SARS-CoV-2, animal monoclonal anti-Spike-SARS-CoV-2 C121 (40); ACE2, abrasion monoclonal Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated Antibiotic (R&D systems, cat. # FAB9332G-100UG). Images were acquired with an ImageXpress Micro XLS microscope (Molecular Devices) appliance the 4X objective. The MetaXpress software (Molecular Devices) produced distinct corpuscle beggarly fluorescence acuteness (MFI) values.
Data appraisal on distinct corpuscle MFI ethics was done in the R ambiance (v4.0.2). ACE2/TMPRSS2-transduced beef were classified ACE2 absolute back the ACE2 log MFI was above to the log beggarly MFI of mock-transduced beef additional 2.5 accepted deviations. We afar all wells with beneath than 150 ACE2-positive beef afore SARS-CoV-2 scoring. ACE2-expressing beef were classified SARS-CoV-2 absolute back the fluorescence acuteness amount was above to the beggarly fluorescence acuteness of mock-infected beef additional 4 accepted deviations. The average SARS-CoV-2 MFI and allotment SARS-CoV-2 absolute beef were affected for anniversary able-bodied (independent infection).
Serum IFN-α concentrations were bent with Simoa technology, with reagents and procedures acquired from Quanterix Corporation (Quanterix SimoaTM IFNα Reagent Kit, Lexington, MA, USA). According to the manufacturer’s instructions, the alive dilutions were 1:2 for all sera, in alive volumes of 170 μL.
Giuseppe Foti1, Giacomo Bellani 1, Giuseppe Citerio1, Ernesto Contro1, Alberto Pesci2, Maria Grazia Valsecchi3, Marina Cazzaniga4
1Department of Emergency, Anesthesia and Accelerated Care, School of Anesthetic and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy. 2Department of Pneumology, School of Anesthetic and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy. 3Center of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, School of Anesthetic and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy. 4Phase I Assay Center, School of Anesthetic and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza IT
Jorge Abad1, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa2, Ozge Metin Akcan3, Ilad Alavi Darazam 4, Juan C. Aldave5, Miquel Alfonso Ramos6, Seyed Alireza Nadji7, Gulsum Alkan8, Jerome Allardet-Servent9, Luis M. Allende10, Laia Alsina11, Marie-Alexandra Alyanakian12, Blanca Amador-Borrero13, Zahir Amoura14, Arnau Antolí15, Sevket Arslan16, Sophie Assant17, Terese Auguet18, Axelle Azot19, Fanny Bajolle20, Aurélie Baldolli21, Maite Ballester22, Hagit Baris Feldman23, Benoit Barrou24, Alexandra Beurton25, Agurtzane Bilbao26, Geraldine Blanchard-Rohner27, Ignacio Blanco1, Adeline Blandinières28, Daniel Blazquez-Gamero29, Marketa Bloomfield30, Mireia Bolivar-Prados31, Raphael Borie32, Cédric Bosteels33, Ahmed A. Bousfiha34, Claire Bouvattier35, Oksana Boyarchuk36, Maria Rita P. Bueno37, Jacinta Bustamante20, Juan José Cáceres Agra38, Semra Camli39, Ruggero Capra40, Maria Carrabba41, Carlos Casasnovas42, Marion Caseris43, Martin Castelle44, Francesco Castelli45, Martín Castillo de Vera46, Mateus V. Castro37, Emilie Catherinot47, Martin Chalumeau48, Bruno Charbit49, Matthew P. Cheng50, Père Clavé31, Bonaventura Clotet51, Anna Codina52, Fatih Colkesen53, Fatma Çölkesen54, Roger Colobran 55, Cloé Comarmond56, David Dalmau57, David Ross Darley58, Nicolas Dauby59, Stéphane Dauger60, Loic de Pontual61, Amin Dehban62, Geoffroy Delplancq63, Alexandre Demoule64, Jean-Luc Diehl65, Stephanie Dobbelaere66, Sophie Durand67, Waleed Eldars68, Mohamed Elgamal69, Marwa H. Elnagdy70, Melike Emiroglu71, Emine Hafize Erdeniz72, Selma Erol Aytekin73, Romain Euvrard74, Recep Evcen75, Giovanna Fabio41, Laurence Faivre76, Antonin Falck43, Muriel Fartoukh77, Morgane Faure78, Miguel Fernandez Arquero79, Carlos Flores80, Bruno Francois81, Victoria Fumadó82, Francesca Fusco83, Blanca Garcia Solis84, Pascale Gaussem85, Juana Gil-Herrera86, Laurent Gilardin87, Monica Girona Alarcon88, Mònica Girona-Alarcón 88, Jean-Christophe Goffard89, Funda Gok90, Rafaela González-Montelongo91, Antoine Guerder92, Yahya Gul93, Sukru Nail Guner93, Marta Gut94, Jérôme Hadjadj95, Filomeen Haerynck96, Rabih Halwani97, Lennart Hammarström98, Nevin Hatipoglu99, Elisa Hernandez-Brito100, Cathérine Heymans101, María Soledad Holanda-Peña102, Juan Pablo Horcajada103, Levi Hoste104, Eric Hoste105, Sami Hraiech106, Linda Humbert107, Alejandro D. Iglesias108, Antonio Íñigo-Campos91, Matthieu Jamme109, María Jesús Arranz110, Iolanda Jordan111, Philippe Jorens112, Fikret Kanat113, Hasan Kapakli114, Iskender Kara115, Adem Karbuz116, Kadriye Kart Yasar117, Sevgi Keles118, Yasemin Kendir Demirkol119, Adam Klocperk120, Zbigniew J. Król121, Paul Kuentz122, Yat Wah M. Kwan123, Jean-Christophe Lagier124, Bart N. Lambrecht33, Yu-Lung LAU125, Fleur Le Bourgeois60, Yee-Sin Leo126, Rafael Leon Lopez127, Daniel Leung125, Michael Levin128, Michael Levy60, Romain Lévy20, Zhi Li49, Agnes Linglart129, Bart Loeys130, José M. Lorenzo-Salazar91, Céline Louapre131, Catherine Lubetzki131, Charles-Edouard Luyt132, David C. Lye133, Davood Mansouri134, Majid Marjani135, Jesus Marquez Pereira136, Andrea Martin137, David Martínez Pueyo138, Javier Martinez-Picado139, Iciar Marzana140, Alexis Mathian14, Larissa R.B. Matos37, Gail V. Matthews141, Julien Mayaux142, Jean-Louis Mège143, Isabelle Melki144, Jean-François Meritet145, Ozge Metin146, Isabelle Meyts147, Mehdi Mezidi148, Isabelle Migeotte149, Maude Millereux150, Tristan Mirault151, Clotilde Mircher67, Mehdi Mirsaeidi152, Abián Montesdeoca Melián153, Antonio Morales Martinez154, Pierre Morange155, Demence Mordacq107, Guillaume Morelle156, Stéphane Mouly13, Adrián Muñoz-Barrera91, Leslie Naesens157, Cyril Nafati158, João Farela Neves159, Lisa F.P. Ng160, Yeray Novoa Medina161, Esmeralda Nuñez Cuadros162, J. Gonzalo Ocejo-Vinyals163, Zerrin Orbak164, Mehdi Oualha20, Tayfun Özçelik165, Qiang Pan Hammarström166, Christophe Parizot142, Tiffany Pascreau167, Estela Paz-Artal168, Sandra Pellegrini49, Rebeca Pérez de Diego84, Aurélien Philippe169, Quentin Philippot77, Laura Planas-Serra170, Dominique Ploin171, Julien Poissy172, Géraldine Poncelet 43, Marie Pouletty173, Paul Quentric142, Didier Raoult143, Anne-Sophie Rebillat67, Ismail Reisli174, Pilar Ricart175, Jean-Christophe Richard176, Nadia rivet28, Jacques G. Rivière177, Gemma Rocamora Blanch15, Carlos Rodrigo1, Carlos Rodriguez-Gallego178, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero179, Carolina Soledad Romero180, Anya Rothenbuhler181, Flore Rozenberg182, Maria Yolanda Ruiz del Prado183, Joan Sabater Riera15, Oliver Sanchez184, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón185, Agatha Schluter170, Matthieu Schmidt186, Cyril E. Schweitzer187, Francesco Scolari188, Anna Sediva189, Luis M. Seijo190, Damien Sene13, Sevtap Senoglu117, Mikko Seppänen191, Alex Serra Ilovich192, Mohammad Shahrooei62, Hans Slabbynck193, David Smadja194, Ali Sobh195, Xavier Solanich Moreno15, Jordi Solé-Violán196, Catherine Soler197, Pere Soler-Palacín137, Yuri Stepanovskiy198, Annabelle Stoclin199, Fabio Taccone149, Yacine Tandjaoui-Lambiotte200, Jean-Luc Taupin 201, Simon J. Tavernier202, Benjamin Terrier203, Caroline Thumerelle107, Gabriele Tomasoni204, Julie Toubiana48, Josep Trenado Alvarez205, Sophie Trouillet-Assant206, Jesús Troya207, Alessandra Tucci208, Matilde Valeria Ursini83, Yurdagul Uzunhan209, Pierre Vabres210, Juan Valencia-Ramos211, Eva Van Braeckel33, Stijn Van de velde212, Ana Maria Van Den Rym84, Jens Van Praet213, Isabelle Vandernoot214, Hulya Vatansev215, Valentina Vélez-Santamaria42, Sébastien Viel171, Cédric Vilain216, Marie E. Vilaire67, Audrey Vincent35, Guillaume Voiriot217, Fanny Vuotto107, Alper Yosunkaya90, Barnaby E Young126, Fatih Yucel218, Faiez Zannad219, Mayana Zatz37, Alexandre Belot220*
1University Hospital and Assay Institute “Germans Trias i Pujol”, Badalona, Spain. 2Navarra Health Service Hospital, Pamplona, Spain. 3Division of Pediatric Communicable Diseases, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey. 4Department of Communicable Diseases, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 5Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, Lima, Peru. 6Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat Spain. 7Virology Assay Center, National institutes of Tuberculosis and Lung diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 8Division of Pediatric Communicable Diseases, Adroitness of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. 9Intensive affliction unit, Hôpital Européen, Marseille, France. 10Immunology Department, University Hospital 12 de Octubre. Assay Institute imas12. Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. 11Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain. 12Department of Biological Immunology, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, APHP and INEM, Paris, France. 13Internal anesthetic department, Hôpital Lariboisière, APHP; Université de Paris, Paris, France. 14Internal anesthetic department, Pitié-Salpétrière Hospital, Paris, France. 15Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain. 16Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey. 17Joint Assay Unit, Hospices Civils de Lyon-bio Mérieux, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon Sud Hospital, Lyon, France. 18Hospital U. de Tarragona Joan XXIII. Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV). IISPV, Tarragona, Spain. 19Private practice, Paris, France. 20Necker Hospital for Sick Children, AP-HP, Paris, France. 21Department of Communicable Diseases, CHU de Caen, Caen, France. 22Consorcio Hospital Accepted Universitario, Valencia, Spain. 23The Genetics Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Sackler Adroitness of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. 24Dept Urology, Nephrology, Transplantation, APHP-SU, Sorbonne Université, INSERM U 1082, Paris, France. 25Service de Médecine Intensive–Réanimation et Pneumologie, APHP Hôpital Pitié–Salpêtrière, Paris, France. 26Cruces University Hospital, Bizkaia, Spain. 27Paediatric Immunology and Vaccinology Unit, Geneva University Hospitals and Adroitness of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland. 28Hematology, Georges Pompidou Hospital, APHP, Paris, France. 29Pediatric Communicable Diseases Unit. Instituto de Investigación 12 de Octubre (imas12). Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain. 30Department of Immunology, Motol University Hospital, 2nd Adroitness of Medicine, Charles University, Administration of Pediatrics, Thomayer’s Hospital, 1st Adroitness of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. 31Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepàticas y Digestivas (Ciberehd). Hospital de Mataró, Consorci Sanitari del Maresme, Mataró, Spain. 32Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Bichat, APHP, Paris, France. 33Department of Pulmonology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. 34Clinical immunology unit, pediatric communicable ache departement, Adroitness of Anesthetic and Pharmacy, Averroes University Hospital. LICIA Laboratoire d’immunologie clinique, d’inflammation et d’allergie, Hassann Ii University, Casablanca, Morocco. 35Endocrinology unit, APHP Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. 36Department of Children’s Diseases and Pediatric Surgery, I.Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University, Ternopil, Ukraine. 37Human Genome and stem-cell assay center- University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 38Hospital Insular, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 39Division of Analytical Affliction Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Konya State Hospital, Konya, Turkey. 40MS Center, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy. 41Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy. 42Bellvitge University Hospital, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. 43Hopital Robert Debré, Paris, France. 44Pediatric Immuno-hematology Unit, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France. 45Department of Communicable and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia, ASST Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia, Italy. 46Doctoral Health Affliction Center, Canarian Health System, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 47Hôpital Foch, Suresnes, France. 48Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris University, AP-HP, Paris, France. 49Pasteur Institute, Paris, France. 50McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada. 51University Hospital and Assay Institute “Germans Trias i Pujol”, IrsiCaixa AIDS Assay Institute, UVic-UCC, Badalona, Spain. 52Clinical Biochemistry, Pathology, Paediatric Neurology and Molecular Anesthetic Departments and Biobank, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER-ISCIII, Esplugues, Spain. 53Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Administration of Internal Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey. 54Department of Infectious Diseases and Analytic Microbiology, Konya Training and Assay Hospital, Konya, Turkey. 55Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. 56Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. 57Fundació Docència i Recerca Mútua Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. 58UNSW Medicine, St Vincent’s Analytic School; Administration of Thoracic Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital Darlinghurst, Sidney, Australia. 59CHU Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium. 60Pediatric Accelerated Affliction Unit, Robert-Debré University Hospital, APHP, Paris, France. 61Sorbonne Paris Nord, Hôpital Jean Verdier, APHP, Bondy, France. 62Specialized Immunology Class of Dr. Shahrooei, Sina Medical Complex, Ahvaz, Iran. 63Centre de génétique humaine, CHU Besançon, Besançon, France. 64Sorbonne Université médecine and APHP Sorbonne université armpit Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France. 65Intensive Affliction unit, Georges Pompidou Hospital, APHP, Paris, France. 66Department of Pneumology, AZ Delta, Roeselare, Belgium. 67Institut Jérôme Lejeune, Paris, France. 68Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Adroitness of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. 69Department of Chest, Adroitness of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. 70Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Adroitness of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. 71Faculty of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Communicable Diseases, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. 72Division of Pediatric Communicable Diseases, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey. 73Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Konya, Turkey. 74Centre Hospitalier Fleyriat, Bourg-en-Bresse, France. 75Division of Analytic Immunology and Allergy, Administration of Internal Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey. 76Centre de Génétique, CHU Dijon, Dijon, France. 77APHP Tenon Hospital, Paris, France. 78Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University of Paris, Paris, France. 79Department of Analytic Immunology , Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain. 80Genomics Division, Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables (ITER), Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain; CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Assay Unit, Hospital Universitario N.S. de Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain; Instituto de Tecnologías Biomédicas (ITB), Universidad de La Laguna, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Spain. 81CHU Limoges and Inserm CIC 1435 & UMR 1092, Limoges, France. 82Infectious Diseases Unit, Administration of Pediatrics, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Spain; Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Barcelona, Spain. 83Institute of Genetics and Biophysics ‘Adriano Buzzati-Traverso’, IGB-CNR, Naples, Italy. 84Laboratory of Immunogenetics of Animal Diseases, IdiPAZ Institute for Health Research, La Paz Hospital, Madrid, Spain. 85Hematology, APHP, Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou and Inserm UMR-S1140, Paris, France. 86Hospital Accepted Universitario and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria “Gregorio Marañón”, Madrid, Spain. 87Bégin aggressive Hospital, Bégin, France. 88Pediatric Accelerated Affliction Unit, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain. 89Department of Internal Medicine, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. 90Division of Analytical Affliction Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey. 91Genomics Division, Instituto Tecnológico y de Energías Renovables (ITER), Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain. 92Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. 93Division of Allergy and Immunology, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey. 94CNAG-CRG, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. 95Department of Internal Medicine, National Advertence Center for Attenuate Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, AP-HP, APHP-CUP, Hôpital Cochin, Paris, France. 96Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. 97Sharjah Institute of Medical Research, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE. 98Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, SE14183, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 99Pediatric Communicable Diseases Unit, Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Assay Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey. 100Department of Immunology , Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín , Canarian Health System, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 101Department of Pediatric hemato-oncology, Jolimont Hospital, Belgium; Administration of Pediatric hemato-oncology, HUDERF, Brussels, Belgium. 102IntensivenCare Unit. Marqués de Valdecilla Hospital, Santander, Spain. 103Hospital del Mar, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain. 104Department of Pediatric pulmonology and immunology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. 105Department of Accelerated Affliction Unit, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. 106Intensive affliction unit, APHM, Marseille, France. 107CHU Lille, Lille, France. 108Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University , New York, NY, USA. 109Centre hospitalier intercommunal Poissy Saint Germain en Laye, Poissy, France. 110Division of Respiratory Diseases, Fundació Docència i Recerca Mútua Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. 111Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Kids Corona Platfform, Barcelona, Spain. 112Department of Accelerated Affliction Unit, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. 113Selcuk University, Adroitness of Medicine, Chest Diseases Department, Konya, Turkey. 114Division of Allergy and Immunology, Balikesir Ataturk City Hospital, Balikesir, Turkey. 115Division of Analytical Affliction Medicine, Selcuk University, Adroitness of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. 116Division of Pediatric Communicable Diseases, Prof. Dr. Cemil Tascıoglu City Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. 117Departments of Communicable Diseases and Analytic Microbiology, Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Assay Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey. 118Meram Medical Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey. 119Health Sciences University, Umraniye Education and Assay Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. 120Department of Immunology, 2nd Adroitness of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital in Motol, Prague, Czech Republic. 121Central Analytic Hospital of Ministry of the Interior and Administering in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. 122Oncobiologie Génétique Bioinformatique, PC Bio, CHU Besançon, Besançon, France. 123Paediatric Communicable Ache Unit, Hospital Authority Communicable Ache Center, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong (Special Authoritative Region), China. 124Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, MEPHI, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France. 125Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 126National Centre for Communicable Diseases, Singapore. 127Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Cordoba, Spain. 128Imperial College, London, England. 129Endocrinology and diabetes for children, AP-HP, Bicêtre Paris-saclay hospital , Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. 130Department of Medical Genetics, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. 131Neurology unit, APHP Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris University, Paris, France. 132Intensive affliction unit, APHP Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris University, Paris, France. 133National Centre for Communicable Diseases; Tan Tock Seng Hospital; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine; Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Singapore. 134Department of Analytic Immunology and Communicable Diseases, National Assay Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, , Tehran, Iran. 135Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Assay Center, National Assay Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 136Hospital Sant Joan de Déu and University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. 137Pediatric Communicable Diseases and Immunodeficiencies Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Vall d’Hebron Assay Institute, Vall d’Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain. 138Hospital Universitari Mutua de Terrassa, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. 139IrsiCaixa AIDS Assay Institute, ICREA, UVic-UCC, Assay Institute “Germans Trias i Pujol”, Badalona, Spain. 140Department of Laboratory, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain. 141University of New South Wales , Australia. 142APHP Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. 143Aix-Marseille University, APHM, Marseille, France. 144Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France. 145APHP Cohin Hospital, Paris, France. 146Necmettin Erbakan University Meram Adroitness of Anesthetic Administration of Pediatric Communicable Diseases, Konya, Turkey. 147University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 148Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Lyon, France. 149Hôpital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium. 150CH gonesse, Gonesse, France. 151Vascular Medicine, Georges Pompidou Hospital, APHP, Paris, France. 152Division of Pulmonary and Analytical Care, University of Miami, Miami, USA. 153Guanarteme Health Affliction Center, Canarian Health System, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 154Regional University Hospital of Malaga, Malaga, Spain. 155Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France. 156Department of Accepted Paediatrics, Hôpital Bicêtre, AP-HP, University of Paris Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. 157Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. 158CHU de La Timone, Marseille, France. 159Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal. 160Infectious Diseases Accumbent Technlogy Centre, A*STAR; Singapore Immunology Network, A*STAR, Singapore. 161Department of Pediatrics, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular-Materno Infantil, Canarian Health System, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 162Regional Universitary Hospital of Malaga, Málaga, Spain. 163Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain. 164Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. 165Bilkent University, Administration of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Ankara, Turkey. 166Department of Class Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE14186 , Stockholm, Sweden. 167L’Hôpital Foch, Suresnes, France. 168Department of Immunology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12), Madrid, Spain. 169APHP Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. 170Neurometabolic Diseases Laboratory, IDIBELL-Hospital Duran i Reynals, Barcelona; CIBERER U759, ISCiii Madrid, Spain. 171Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France. 172Université de Lille, Inserm U1285, CHU Lille, Paris, France. 173Departement of Accepted Pediatrics, University Hospital Robert Debré, APHP , Paris, France. 174Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey. 175Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital, Badalona, Spain. 176Medical accelerated affliction unit. Hopital de la Croix-Rousse. Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France. 177Pediatric Communicable Diseases and Immunodeficiencies Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Vall d’Hebron Assay Institute, Vall d’Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus., Barcelona, Spain. 178Department of Immunology, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín, Canarian Health System, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, EU. University Fernando Pessoa Canarias, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 179Neurometabolic Diseases Laboratory, IDIBELL-Hospital Duran i Reynals, Barcelona, Spain. 180Consorcio Hospital Accepted Universitario, Valencia, Spain. 181APHP Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Paris, France. 182Virology unit, Université de Paris, Cohin Hospital, APHP, Paris, France. 183Hospital San Pedro, Logroño, Spain. 184Respiratory medicine, Georges Pompidou Hospital, APHP, Paris, France. 185Dept. Immunology, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain. 186Service de Médecine Accelerated Réanimation, Institut de Cardiologie, Hopital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France. 187CHRU de Nancy, Hôpital d’Enfants, Vandoeuvre, France. 188Chair of Nephrology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy. 189Department of Immunology, 2nd Adroitness of Medicine, Charles University and Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. 190Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Madrid, Spain. 191HUS Helsinki University Hospital, Accouchement and Adolescents, Attenuate Ache Center, and Inflammation Center, Adult Immunodeficiency Unit, Majakka, Helsinki, Finland. 192Fundació Docència i Recerca Mútua Terrassa, Terrassa, Spain. 193Department of Pulmonology, ZNA Middelheim, Antwerp, Belgium. 194Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France. 195Department of Pediatrics, Adroitness of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. 196Critical Affliction Assemblage , Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín, Canarian Health System, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 197CHU de Saint Etienne, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez, France. 198Shupyk National Medical Academy for Postgraduate Education, Kiev, Ukraine. 199Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. 200Intensive Affliction Unit, Avicenne Hospital, APHP, Bobigny, France. 201Laboratory of Immunology and Histocompatibility, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris University, Paris, France. 202Department of Internal Diseases and Pediatrics, Primary Allowed Absence Assay Lab, Centre for Primary Immunodeficiency Ghent, Jeffrey Modell Diagnosis and Assay Centre, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. 203Department of Internal Medicine, Université de Paris, INSERM, U970, PARCC, F-75015, Paris, France. 204First Division of Anesthesiology and Analytical Affliction Medicine, University of Brescia, ASST Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia, Italy. 205Intensive Affliction Department, Hospital Universitari MutuaTerrassa, Universitat Barcelona, Terrassa, Spain. 206Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon Sud Hospital, Lyon, France. 207Infanta Leonor University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. 208Hematology Department, ASST Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia, Italy. 209Pneumologie, Hôpital Avicenne, APHP, INSERM U1272, Université Sorbonne Paris Nord, Bobigny, France. 210Dermatology unit, Laboratoire GAD, INSERM UMR1231 LNC, université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France. 211University Hospital of Burgos, Burgos, Spain. 212Department of Accelerated Affliction Unit, M. Middelares Ghent, Ghent, Belgium. 213Department of Nephrology and Infectiology, AZ Sint-Jan, Bruges, Belgium. 214Center of Animal Genetics, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. 215Department of Chest Diseases, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey. 216CHU de Caen, Caen, France. 217Sorbonne Université, Service de Médecine Accelerated Réanimation, Hôpital Tenon, Abetment Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. 218General Accelerated Affliction Unit, Konya Training and Assay Hospital, Konya, Turkey. 219CHU de Nancy, Nancy, France. 220University of Lyon, CIRI, INSERM U1111, National adjudicator centre RAISE, Pediatric Rheumatology, HFME, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.
*Leader of COVID Clinicians.
Christine Bole-Feysot, Stanislas Lyonnet*, Cécile Masson, Patrick Nitschke, Aurore Pouliet, Yoann Schmitt, Frederic Tores, Mohammed Zarhrate
Imagine Institute, Université de Paris, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France.
*Leader of the Imagine COVID Group.
Laurent Abel1, Claire Andrejak2, François Angoulvant3, Delphine Bachelet4, Romain Basmaci5, Sylvie Behillil6, Marine Beluze7, Dehbia Benkerrou8, krishna Bhavsar4, François Bompart9, Lila Bouadma4, Maude Bouscambert10, Mireille Caralp11, Minerva Cervantes-Gonzalez12, Anissa Chair4, Alexandra Coelho13, Camille Couffignal4, Sandrine Couffin-Cardiergues14, Eric D’ortenzio12, Charlene Da Silveira4, Marie-Pierre Debray4, Dominique Deplanque15, Diane Descamps16, Mathilde Desvallées17, Alpha Diallo18, Alphonsine Diouf13, Céline Dorival8, François Dubos19, Xavier Duval4, Philippine Eloy4, Vincent VE Enouf20, Hélène Esperou21, Marina Esposito-Farese4, Manuel Etienne22, Nadia Ettalhaoui4, Nathalie Gault4, Alexandre Gaymard10, Jade Ghosn4, Tristan Gigante23, Isabelle Gorenne4, Jérémie Guedj24, Alexandre Hoctin13, Isabelle Hoffmann4, Salma Jaafoura21, Ouifiya Kafif4, Florentia Kaguelidou25, Sabina Kali4, Antoine Khalil4, Coralie Khan17, Cédric Laouénan4, Samira Laribi4, Minh Le4, Quentin Le Hingrat4, Soizic Le Mestre18, Hervé Le Nagard24, François-Xavier Lescure4, Yves Lévy26, Claire Levy-Marchal27, Bruno Lina10, Guillaume Lingas24, Jean Christophe Lucet4, Denis Malvy28, Marina Mambert13, France Mentré4, Noémie Mercier18, Amina Meziane8, Hugo Mouquet20, Jimmy Mullaert4, Nadège Neant24, Marion Noret29, Justine Pages30, Aurélie Papadopoulos21, Christelle Paul18, Nathan Peiffer-Smadja4, Ventzislava Petrov-Sanchez18, Gilles Peytavin4, Olivier Picone31, Oriane Puéchal12, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava10, Bénédicte Rossignol23, Patrick Rossignol32, Carine Roy4, Marion Schneider4, Caroline Semaille12, Nassima Si Mohammed4, Lysa Tagherset4, Coralie Tardivon4, Marie-Capucine Tellier4, François Téoulé8, Olivier Terrier10, Jean-François Timsit4, Théo Treoux4, Christelle Tual33, Sarah Tubiana4, Sylvie van der Werf34, Noémie Vanel35, Aurélie Veislinger33, Benoit Visseaux16, Aurélie Wiedemann26, Yazdan Yazdanpanah36
1Inserm UMR 1163, Paris, France. 2CHU Amiens, France. 3Hôpital Necker, Paris, France. 4Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France. 5Hôpital Louis Mourrier, Colombes, France. 6Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. 7F-CRIN Partners Platform, AP-HP, Université de Paris, Paris, France. 8Inserm UMR 1136, Paris, France. 9Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative, Geneva, Switzerland. 10Inserm UMR 1111, Lyon, France. 11Inserm Transfert, Paris, France. 12REACTing, Paris, France. 13Inserm UMR 1018, Paris, France. 14Inserm, Pôle Recherche Clinique, France. 15CIC 1403 Inserm-CHU Lille, Paris, France. 16Université de Paris, IAME, INSERM UMR 1137, AP-HP, University hospital Bichat Claude Bernard, Virology, F-75018 Paris, France. 17Inserm UMR 1219, Bordeaux, France. 18ANRS, Paris, France. 19CHU Lille, France. 20Pasteur Institute, Paris, France. 21Inserm sponsor, Paris, France. 22Rouen – SMIT, France. 23FCRIN INI-CRCT, Nancy, France. 24Inserm UMR 1137, Paris, France. 25Centre d’Investigation Clinique, Inserm CIC1426, Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris, France. 26Inserm UMR 955, Créteil, France; Vaccine Assay Instiute (VRI), Paris, France. 27F-CRIN INI-CRCT, Paris, France. 28Bordeaux – SMIT, France. 29RENARCI, Annecy, France. 30Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris, France. 31Colombes – Louis Mourier – Gynécologie, France. 32University of Lorraine, Plurithematic Analytic Investigation Centre Inserm CIC-P; 1433, Inserm U1116, CHRU Nancy Hopitaux de Brabois, F-CRIN INI-CRCT; (Cardiovascular and Renal Analytic Trialists), Nancy, France. 33Inserm CIC-1414, Rennes, France. 34Institut Pasteur, UMR 3569 CNRS, Université de Paris, Paris, France. 35hôpital la timone, Marseille, France. 36Paris – Bichat – SMIT, France.
Loubna Alavoine1, Karine KA Amat2, Sylvie Behillil3, Julia Bielicki4, Patricia Bruijning5, Charles Burdet6, Eric Caumes7, Charlotte Charpentier8, Bruno Coignard9, Yolande Costa1, Sandrine Couffin-Cardièrgues10, Florence Damond8, Aline Dechanet11, Christelle Delmas10, Diane Descamps8, Xavier Duval1, Jean-Luc Ecobichon1, Vincent Enouf3, Hélène Espérou10, Wahiba Frezouls1, Nadhira Houhou11, Emila Ilic-Habensus1, Ouifiya Kafif11, John Kikoine11, Quentin Le Hingrat8, David Lebeaux12, Anne Leclercq1, Jonathan Lehacaut1, Sophie Letrou1, Bruno Lina13, Jean-Christophe Lucet14, Denis Malvy15, Pauline Manchon11, Milica Mandic1, Mohamed Meghadecha16, Justina Motiejunaite17, Mariama Nouroudine1, Valentine Piquard11, Andreea Postolache11, Caroline Quintin1, Jade Rexach1, Layidé Roufai10, Zaven Terzian11, Michael Thy18, Sarah Tubiana1, Sylvie van der Werf3, Valérie Vignali1, Benoit Visseaux8, Yazdan Yazdanpanah14
1Centre d’Investigation Clinique, Inserm CIC 1425, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard, APHP, Paris, France. 2IMEA Fondation Léon M’Ba, Paris, France. 3Institut Pasteur, UMR 3569 CNRS, Université de Paris, Paris, France. 4University of Basel Children’s Hospital. 5Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht. 6Université de Paris, IAME, Inserm UMR 1137, F-75018, Paris, France, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard, APHP, Paris, France. 7Hôpital Pitiè Salpétriere, APHP, Paris. 8Université de Paris, IAME, INSERM UMR 1137, AP-HP, University hospital Bichat Claude Bernard, Virology, F-75018 Paris, France. 9Santé Publique France, Saint Maurice, France. 10Pole Recherche Clinique, Inserm, Paris France. 11Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard, APHP, Paris, France. 12APHP, Paris, France. 13Virpath Laboratory, International Center of Assay in Infectiology, Lyon University, INSERM U1111, CNRS UMR 5308, ENS, UCBL, Lyon, France . 14IAME Inserm UMR 1138, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard, APHP, Paris, France. 15Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales; Groupe Pellegrin-Place Amélie-Raba-Léon, BORDEAUX. 16Hôpital Hotel Dieu, APHP, Paris, France. 17ervice des explorations fonctionnelles, Hôpital Bichat- Claude Bernard, APHP, Paris, France. 18Center for Analytic Investigation, Abetment Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital.
Michiel van Agtmael1, Anne Geke Algera2, Frank van Baarle2, Diane Bax3, Martijn Beudel4, Harm Jan Bogaard5, Marije Bomers1, Lieuwe Bos2, Michela Botta2, Justin de Brabander6, Godelieve Bree6, Matthijs C. Brouwer4, Sanne de Bruin2, Marianna Bugiani7, Esther Bulle2, O. Chouchane1, Alex Cloherty3, Paul Elbers2, Lucas Fleuren2, Suzanne Geerlings1, Bart Geerts8, Theo Geijtenbeek9, Armand Girbes2, Bram Goorhuis1, Martin P. Grobusch1, Florianne Hafkamp9, Laura Hagens2, Jorg Hamann10, Vanessa Harris1, Robert Hemke11, Sabine M. Hermans1, Leo Heunks2, Markus Hollmann8, Janneke Horn2, Joppe W. Hovius1, Menno de Jong12, Rutger Koning4, Mourik van Mourik2, Jeaninne Nellen1, Frederique Paulus2, Edgar Peters1, Tom van der Poll1, Bennedikt Preckel8, Jan M. Prins1, Jorinde Raasveld2, Tom Reijnders1, Michiel Schinkel1, Marcus Schultz2, Alex Schuurman13, Kim Sigaloff1, Marry Smit2, Cornelis S. Stijnis1, Willemke Stilma2, Charlotte Teunissen14, Patrick Thoral2, Anissa Tsonas2, Marc van der Valk1, Denise Veelo8, Alexander P.J. Vlaar15, Heder de Vries2, Michèle van Vugt1, W. Joost Wiersinga1, Dorien Wouters16, A. H (Koos) Zwinderman17, Diederik van de Beek18*
1Department of Communicable Diseases, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Department of Accelerated Care, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 3Experimental Immunology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 4Department of Neurology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 5Department of Pulmonology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 6Department of Communicable Diseases, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 7Department of Pathology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 8Department of Anesthesiology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 9Department of Experimental Immunology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 10Amsterdam UMC Biobank Amount Facility, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 11Department of Radiology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 12Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 13Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 14Neurochemical Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 15Department of Accelerated Care, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 16Department of Analytic Chemistry, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 17Department of Analytic Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 18Department of Neurology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
*Leader of the AMC Consortium.
Laurent Abel1, Alessandro Aiuti2, Saleh Al Muhsen3, Fahd Al-Mulla4, Mark S. Anderson5, Andrés Augusto Arias6, Hagit Baris Feldman7, Dusan Bogunovic8, Alexandre Bolze9, Anastasiia Bondarenko10, Ahmed A. Bousfiha11, Petter Brodin12, Yenan Bryceson12, Carlos D. Bustamante13, Manish Butte14, Giorgio Casari15, Samya Chakravorty16, John Christodoulou17, Elizabeth Cirulli9, Antonio Condino Neto18, Megan A. Cooper19, Clifton L. Dalgard20, AlessiaDavid21, Joseph L. DeRisi22, Murkesh Desai23, Beth A. Drolet24, Sara Espinosa25, Jacques Fellay26, Carlos Flores27, Jose Luis Franco28, Peter K. Gregersen29, Filomeen Haerynck30, David Hagin31, Rabih Halwani32, Jim Heath33, Sarah E. Henrickson34, Elena Hsieh35, Kohsuke Imai36, Yuval Itan8, Timokratis Karamitros37, Kai Kisand38, Cheng-Lung Ku39, Yu-Lung Lau40, Yun Ling41, Carrie L. Lucas42, Tom Maniatis43, Davoud Mansouri44, Laszlo Marodi45, Isabelle Meyts46, Joshua Milner47, Kristina Mironska48, Trine Mogensen49, Tomohiro Morio50, Lisa P. Ng51, Luigi D. Notarangelo52, AntonioNovelli53, Giuseppe Novelli54, Cliona O’Farrelly55, Satoshi Okada56, Tayfun Ozcelik57, Rebeca Perez de Diego58, Anna M. Planas59, Carolina Prando60, Aurora Pujol 61, Lluis Quintana-Murci62, LaurentRenia63, Alessandra Renieri64, Carlos Rodríguez-Gallego65, Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu66, Vijay Sankaran67, Kelly Schiabor Barrett9, Mohammed Shahrooei68, Andrew Snow69, Pere Soler-Palacín70, András N. Spaan71, Stuart Tangye72, Stuart Turvey73, Furkan Uddin74, Mohammed J. Uddin75, Diederik van de Beek76, Sara E. Vazquez77, Donald C. Vinh78, Horst von Bernuth79, Nicole Washington9, Pawel Zawadzki80, Helen C. Su52, Jean-Laurent Casanova81
1INSERM U1163, University of Paris, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. 2San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. 3King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 4Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait. 5University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. 6Universidad de Antioquia, Accumulation of Primary Immunodeficiencies, Antioquia, Colombia. 7The Genetics Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Sackler Adroitness of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. 8Icahn School of Anesthetic at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. 9Helix, San Mateo, CA, USA. 10Shupyk National Medical Academy for Postgraduate Education, Kiev, Ukraine. 11Clinical immunology unit, pediatric communicable ache departement, Adroitness of Anesthetic and Pharmacy, Averroes University Hospital. LICIA Laboratoire d’immunologie clinique, d’inflammation et d’allergie, Hassann Ii University., Casablanca, Morocco. 12Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. 13Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. 14University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. 15Medical Genetics, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. 16Emory, Atlanta, GA, USA. 17Murdoch Children’s Assay Institute, Victoria, Australia. 18University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 19Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. 20The American Genome Center; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA. 21Centre for Bioinformatics and System Biology, Administration of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington campus, London, UK. 22University of California San Francisco; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, CA, United States. 23Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, India. 24 School of Anesthetic and Accessible Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. 25Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics), Mexico City, Mexico. 26Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. 27Research Unit, Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, Canarian Health System, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain. 28University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. 29Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Northwell Health USA, Manhasset, NY, USA. 30Department of Paediatric Immunology and Pulmonology, Centre for Primary Immunodeficiency Ghent (CPIG), PID assay lab, Jeffrey Modell Diagnosis and Assay Centre, Ghent University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium. 31The Genetics Institute Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel. 32Sharjah Institute of Medical Research, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE. 33Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA, USA. 34Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. 35Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA. 36Riken, Tokyo, Japan. 37Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, Greece. 38University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia. 39Chang Gung University, Taoyuan County, Taiwan. 40The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 41Shanghai Accessible Health Analytic Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. 42Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. 43New York Genome Center, New York, NY, USA. 44Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 45Semmelweis University Budapest, Budapest, Hungary. 46KU Leuven, Administration of Immunology, Microbiology and Transplantation , Leuven, Belgium. 47Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. 48University Clinic for Children’s Diseases, Skopje, North Macedonia. 49Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. 50Tokyo Medical & Dental University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. 51Singapore Immunology Network, , Singapore. 52National Institute of Allergy and Communicable Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. 53Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy, Rome, Italy, Italy. 54Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy; Dept. Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy. 55Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. 56Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. 57Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey. 58Laboratory of Immunogenetics of Animal Diseases, Innate Amnesty Group, IdiPAZ Institute for Health Research, La Paz Hospital, Madrid 28046, Spain, EU, Madrid, Spain, Spain. 59IIBB-CSIC, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain. 60Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe e Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Brazil. 61Neurometabolic Diseases Laboratory, IDIBELL- Hospital Duran I Reynals; Catalan Institution for Assay and Advanced Studies (ICREA); CIBERER U759, ISCiii Madrid Spain, Barcelona, Spain. 62Institut Pasteur (CNRS UMR2000) and Collège de France, Paris, France. 63Infectious Diseases Accumbent Technology Center and Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science Technology (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore. 64University of Siena, Siena, Italy. 65Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr Negrín, Canarian Health System, Canary Islands, Spain. 66Imperial College London, London, UK. 67Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. 68Saeed Pathobiology and Abiogenetic Lab, Tehran, Iran. 69Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), Bethesda, MD, USA. 70Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. 71University Medical Center Utrecht, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 72Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia. 73The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 74Holy Family Red Crescent Medical College; Centre for Precision Therapeutics, NeuroGen Children’s Healthcare; Genetics and Genomic Anesthetic Centre, NeuroGen Children’s Healthcare, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 75Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Anesthetic and Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Dubai, UAE; The Centre for Activated Genomics, Administration of Genetics and Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 76Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 77University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States. 78McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada. 79Charité – Berlin University Hospital Center, Berlin, Germany. 80Molecular Biophysics Division, Adroitness of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Uniwersytetu Poznanskiego 2, Poznań, Poland. 81Rockefeller University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Necker Hospital, New York, NY, USA.
*Leaders of the COVID Animal Abiogenetic Effort.
Huie Jing1, 2, Wesley Tung1, 2, Christopher R. Luthers3, Bradly M. Bauman3, Samantha Shafer2, 4, Lixin Zheng2, 4, Zinan Zhang2, 4, Satoshi Kubo2, 4, Samuel D. Chauvin2, 4, Kazuyuki Meguro1,2, Elana Shaw1,2, Michael Lenardo2,4, Justin Lack5, Eric Karlins6, Daniel M. Hupelo7, John Rosenberger7, Gauthaman Sukumar7, Matthew D. Wilkerson7, Xijun Zhang7
1Laboratory of Analytic Immunology and Microbiology, Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. 2NIAID Analytic Genomics Program, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. 3Department of Pharmacology & Molecular Therapeutics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA. 4 Class of Allowed System Biology, Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. 5NIAID Collaborative Bioinformatics Resource, Frederick National Class for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick, MD, USA. 6Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, Office of Cyber Infrastructure and Computational Biology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. 7The American Genome Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.
M. Bouaziz, J. Mullaert, B. Bigio, Y. Seeleuthner, J.-L. Casanova, A. Alcais, L. Abel, A. Cobat, Controlling for animal citizenry stratification in attenuate alternative affiliation studies. bioRxiv 969477 [Preprint]. 28 February 2020. .doi:10.1101/2020.02.28.969477
M. Ogishi, R. Yang, C. Gruber, S. Pelham, A. N. Spaan, J. Rosain, M. Chbihi, J. E. Han, V. K. Rao, L. Kainulainen, J. Bustamante, B. Boisson, D. Bogunovic, S. Boisson-Dupuis, J.-L. Casanova, Multi-batch cytometry abstracts affiliation for optimal immunophenotyping. bioRxiv 202432 [Preprint]. 15 July 2020. .doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.202432
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